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Lesson: Laws and the National Community Facing History

Details: These laws included dozens of discriminatory measures passed by national, state, regional, and local governments to exclude Jews from even the seemingly mundane aspects of German society, as well as laws that put into place national programs to encourage so-called Aryans to reproduce and prevent non-Aryans from doing so.

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Lesson: The Rule of Law and Why It Matters Facing History

Details: The laws are clear, publicized, stable, and just; are applied evenly; and protect fundamental rights, including the security of persons and property and certain core human rights. The process by which the laws are enacted, administered, and enforced is accessible, fair, and efficient.

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The Nuremberg Laws Facing History and Ourselves

Details: As they worked to consolidate power and reshape Germany according to their racial ideals, Nazi leaders passed a number of new laws that redefined citizenship and laid the groundwork for a “racial state.”. On September 15, 1935, at a party rally in Nuremberg, the Nazis announced two new laws that changed who could be a German citizen.

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Lesson: How Do Rules & Traditions Shape Communities

Details: When students mention laws or customs, ask them to identify specific examples. At this point in the lesson, students can define the following words: rule, law, custom, and contract. Although laws and customs are both types of rules, customs tend to be more informal whereas laws are established by governments or institutions.

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Voting Rights in the United States Facing History and

Details: Voting rights are a fraught issue this year during the 2020 presidential election. Since the US Supreme Court struck down a key section of the 1965 Voting Rights Act in the 2013 Shelby County v.Holder decision, many states have passed laws that create barriers to voting, by limiting the types of ID voters can use, disenfranchising felons, restricting early and absentee voting, and removing

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Early Apartheid: 1948-1970 Facing History and Ourselves

Details: Apartheid laws treated black South Africans not as citizens of South Africa but rather as members of assigned ethnic communities. The Bantu Authorities Act (1951) and the Bantu Self-Government Act (1959) created ten “homelands” for black South Africans, known as Bantustans, and established new authorities in the Bantustans.

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We and They in Colonial America Facing History and …

Details: One of the new laws stated that whether the child of an Englishman and an African woman was slave or free was to be determined solely by the mother’s status. If she had been enslaved, her child was a slave. Slavery was now a “permanent” and inheritable condition for people of African descent.

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What is a Nation

Details: The Nuremberg Laws. Learn about the laws that redefined what it meant to be German in Nazi Germany, and that stripped Jews and others of citizenship. Add or Edit Playlist. Video . Holocaust . Justice & Human Rights . Perpetrators and Mass Murder . We Call Ourselves "Roma"

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The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Facing History and Ourselves

Details: The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 began the period of time known as Radical Reconstruction. These laws included the following measures: The South was divided into five military districts and governed by military governors until acceptable state constitutions could be written and approved by Congress. All males, regardless of race, but excluding

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The History of Slave Patrols, Black Codes, and Vagrancy Laws

Details: The Civil War ended in April 1865, and by the fall of that year most Southern state legislatures passed a series of laws known as Black Codes, which severely restricted the freedom of Black people living in the South. Black Codes were negated by the Civil Rights Act, passed by Congress in 1866, and 14th Amendment, ratified by the states in 1868

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The Freedom Charter Facing History and Ourselves

Details: Pass Laws, permits and all other laws restricting these freedoms shall be abolished. There Shall be Work and Security! All who work shall be free to form trade unions, to elect their officers and to make wage agreements with their employers; The state shall recognise the right and duty of all to work, and to draw full unemployment benefits;

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Inventing Black and White Facing History and Ourselves

Details: By the 1700s, the laws and customs of Virginia had begun to distinguish black people from white people, making it impossible for most Virginians of African descent to do what Johnson and Key had done. This 1905 painting by Howard Pyle depicts the burning of Jamestown in 1676 by black and white rebels led by Nathaniel Bacon.

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How You Can Guide Decision Making in the Presence of

Details: The Chinese Exclusion Laws, Jim Crow, Apartheid, and the Nuremberg Laws are just a handful of examples of when following the law meant engaging in immoral and violent acts that targeted groups of vulnerable people for discrimination and even elimination.

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Isolated and Demonized Facing History and Ourselves

Details: Those laws placed Jews further outside of Germany’s universe of obligation—the circle of individuals and groups whom the government protected, for whose benefit laws were written and enforced, and in whose name justice was sought. Citations. 1: Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich at War (New York: Penguin Press, 2009), 67–68.

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Eugenics, Race, and Marriage Facing History and Ourselves

Details: These laws were an American invention.There was no ban on interracial marriage in England at the time. By the late 1800s, 38 states had anti-miscegenation statutes. As late as 1924 these laws were on the books in 29 states. Anti-miscegenation laws varied greatly in …

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Understanding Jim Crow (Setting the Setting) Facing

Details: Transcript (Text) From the late 19th century to the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, many Southern states implemented laws of racial segregation that came to be known as Jim Crow laws. Many of these laws defined segregated public spaces. Others detailed social opportunities that would promote white supremacy, while deliberately stifling

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Timeline of French Secularity Facing History and Ourselves

Details: The Jules Ferry Laws establish mandatory, free, and secular (laïque) education for all French students under the age of 15. Ferry, the education minister behind these laws, is credited with two critical achievements: The creation of a national culture that unified …

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Women Rise Up Against Apartheid and Change the Movement

Details: Women Rise Up Against Apartheid and Change the Movement. A group of women hold signs in demonstration against the pass laws in Cape Town on August 9, 1956, the same day as the massive women’s protest in Pretoria. Since the early twentieth century, African women actively opposed the pass laws restricting the movement of Africans.

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We the People in the United States Facing History and

Details: Hence, every discrimination against women in the constitutions and laws of the several states, is today null and void, precisely as is every one against Negroes. 4. Despite her argument, Anthony was tried and convicted for “the crime of having voted” in the 1872 election and fined $100. Women did not obtain the right to vote in the United

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The Equality Clause: Gay Rights and the Constitution

Details: In fact, since 1994 Parliament has passed more than 30 laws that make sure that gay and lesbian people are treated fairly and are protected by the law. Here are some of them. A very important one was the equality clause in the Bill of Rights in our Constitution, which happened in 1996.

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Documents Facing History and Ourselves

Details: In 1874 and 1875, the White League was responsible for widespread violence against black and white Republicans in Louisiana and Mississippi. The group’s platform from 1874 is articulated here. The Mississippi Black Codes attempt to codify expectations of freedpeople around topics such as intermarriage and labor laws.

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Conformity and Consent in the National Community Facing

Details: Learn about the laws that redefined what it meant to be German in Nazi Germany, and that stripped Jews and others of citizenship. Add or Edit Playlist. Reading 6 of 20 . Holocaust . Discovering Jewish Blood. Find out how one family's lives changed when Hitler passed the Nuremberg Laws in Nazi Germany (Spanish available).

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Part Four: Interracial Democracy Facing History and

Details: These states passed the first civil rights laws in American history at the state level outlawing various kinds of discrimination. [MUSIC PLAYING] And even on a more, I guess, down-to-earth basis, the presence of sympathetic local officials—police, sheriffs, judges, justices of the peace, the fact that blacks are now serving on juries for the

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Where Do Human Rights Begin

Details: The Declaration was designed to define and ensure the freedoms for which all human beings yearn. For Eleanor, the classic demands for freedom and equal opportunities had been voiced in the historical struggle for democracy. 15 That struggle was far from over, and the Declaration would help move it toward its climax. In her earlier wartime essay “The Moral Basis of Democracy,” Eleanor

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Religious Freedom in Colonial Virginia Facing History

Details: The tithe to the Anglican Church combined with laws that that stopped dissenting ministers from performing marriages or conducting public worship, severely curtailed the religious freedoms of the nonconformist Christians. Corporal punishment for religious dissent was common (including whipping or cropping the ears of outspoken Baptists or

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Genetics, Eugenics, and Ethics Facing History and Ourselves

Details: So when many states passed laws that would allow them to sterilize criminals or sterilize people with mental illness, the courts initially struck those down. But eventually, in the 1920s, the state of Virginia crafted a law designed to meet these objections. And the law was challenged all the way up to the Supreme Court.

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The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow Facing History and Ourselves

Details: This era, and the laws that defined it, is called Jim Crow. Promises Betrayed (1865-1896) The first episode begins with the end of the Civil War and Reconstruction—periods that held so much promise for free black men and women. But as the North gradually withdrew its support for black aspirations for land, civil and political rights, and

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Enabling Dictatorship Facing History and Ourselves

Details: Article 1. National laws can be enacted by the Reich Cabinet as well as in accordance with the procedure established in the Constitution. This also applies to the laws referred to in Article 85, Paragraph 2, and in Article 87 of the Constitution. Article 2.

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Growing Resistance Meets Growing Repression Facing

Details: While he had been involved, as a government minister, in the repeal of laws banning interracial sex and marriage, he remained a proponent of white political rule. But it was the intensification of resistance, both within and outside of the country, the near bankruptcy of the economy, and the changing international environment as the Cold War

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Creating a Constitutional Government Facing History and

Details: Old laws that denied freedoms that were promised in the new constitution were rarely revised, replaced, or even challenged in court. Among them were laws that discriminated against homosexual men and “Gypsies” (the name Germans gave to two groups of people called the Sinti and Roma).

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Establishing the Nuremberg Tribunal Facing History and

Details: WAR CRIMES: namely, violations of the laws or customs of war. Such violations shall include, but not be limited to . . . murder, ill-treatment of prisoners of war or persons on the seas, killing of hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity;

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Lesson: Justice and Judgment after the Holocaust Facing

Details: The trials and the judgments that were reached after the war in courtrooms in Nuremberg gave life to long-standing international laws and inspired new ones over time. Each of the trials was intended to give expression to the horror of the crimes and the pain of the victims.

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Religion, Loyalty, and Belonging Facing History and

Details: In the late eighteenth century, the United States and France were both new democracies with large Christian majorities, struggling with tensions over religion, loyalty, and belonging. On August 17, 1790, Moses Seixas, an official of the Hebrew congregation in Newport, Rhode Island, was selected to deliver a public letter to President George

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Excerpts from the Weimar Constitution Facing History and

Details: Reich laws are executed by state authorities, inasfar Reich laws do not specify otherwise. Article 15 Reich government exercises supervision in those matters in which it is responsible for legislation. If Reich laws have to be executed by state authorities, the Reich government may establish general directions.

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A Time of Crisis: The Sanitation Strike Facing History

Details: We must have laws. But I would remind you most respectfully, sir, that there are laws that are greater than the laws of Memphis and Tennessee--the laws of God. The following day the President of the United States sent a federal negotiator to help settle the strike. This time, the two sides reached agreement on every issue but one.

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Breeding Society’s "Fittest" Facing History and Ourselves

Details: These American laws, passed in the 1920s, became models for similar laws enacted in Germany a decade later. Scientists who tried to show that there was no “pure” race were ignored. In the late 1800s, the German Anthropological Society, under the leadership of Rudolph Virchow, conducted a study to find out if there really were racial

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LawfortheProtectionofGermanBloodandGermanHonor

Details: LawsPassedbyHitlerandtheNazis TheReichCitizenshipLaw (alsocalledtheNuremberglaws)—September15,1935 Article16 Section2 1

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Beyond National Sovereignty: How to Protect Citizens From

Details: As Raphael Lemkin proved in his furious attempts to outlaw genocide and racial violence, the Nazis had not violated existing international laws when they stripped Jews of citizenship, confiscated their property, and sent them to concentration camps. 5 Even the prosecutors at the postwar Nuremburg trials, who worked with outdated international

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Understanding Jim Crow Facing History and Ourselves

Details: Understanding the systems of racial separation and institutionalized segregation that are known as Jim Crow is essential for understanding the setting of To Kill A Mockingbird.In this activity, watch the video “Understanding Jim Crow” and use connection questions to better grasp the time and setting of To Kill A Mockingbird. This is Handout 3.2 from Teaching Mockingbird.

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Being Jewish in the United States Facing History and

Details: Being Jewish in the United States. Judaism, a religious faith that began in the Middle East over 3,500 years ago, is the world’s oldest monotheistic religion. Today, more than 14 million Jews live in dozens of countries around the world, the majority in Israel and the United States. (In the United States, there were about 7 million Jews

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Africans Resist White Control Facing History and Ourselves

Details: Africans Resist White Control. Sol Plaatje was the co-founder of the African National Congress (ANC). As an activist and politician, he spent much of his life fighting for the enfranchisement and liberation of the South African people. In 1910, South Africa became a single country under white rule. Parliament immediately began enacting laws and

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The Supreme Court and the Sterilization of Carrie Buck

Details: The ruling encouraged other states to enact sterilization laws. By 1930, 24 states had passed similar measures and about 60,000 people were sterilized under these statutes. Virginia alone sterilized more than 7,500 people between the Supreme Court ruling in …

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Lesson: The Child Refugee Debate Facing History

Details: During the 1920s, the US Congress passed laws that severely limited the number of immigrants who could enter the country each year. A series of restrictive legislative measures culminated in 1924 with the Johnson-Reed Act, which set quotas, or limits, on the number of immigrants from particular countries who could be admitted to the United States each year.

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Lesson: Dismantling Democracy (UK) Facing History

Details: Laws were one powerful tool the Nazis used to create this racialised ‘national community’: between 1933 and 1939 they enacted nearly 1,500 laws, policies, and decrees that privileged ‘Aryans’ and excluded, discriminated against, and persecuted Jews and other supposedly inferior groups.

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Raphael Lemkin and the Genocide Convention Facing

Details: They also worked to establish new international standards, laws, and treaties in the hope of preventing future crimes like those perpetrated by Nazi Germany. But before World War II ended, the Polish Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin had already been working for decades to make the world recognize mass murder as an international crime.

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