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List of acts and laws Britannica

Details: United Kingdom. Act of Union (1801) Obscene Publications Act (1857; 1959 and 1977 [revised]) British North America Act (1867) Ballot Act (1872) Indian Evidence Act (1872) Judicature Act of 1873. Trade Disputes Act (1906) Parliament Act of 1911.

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Laws work by Plato Britannica

Details: Other articles where Laws is discussed: Plato: Late dialogues: (The Laws, left unfinished at Plato’s death, seems to represent a practical approach to the planning of a city.) If one combines the hints (in the Republic) associating the Good with the One, or Unity; the …

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law Definition, Systems, Institutions, & Fields Britannica

Details: Law, the discipline and profession concerned with the customs, practices, and rules of conduct of a community that are recognized as binding by the community. Learn more about the various systems, institutions, and fields of law in the entries mentioned in this article.

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Nurnberg Laws Definition, Date, & Facts Britannica

Details: Nurnberg Laws, two race-based measures depriving Jews of rights, designed by Adolf Hitler and approved by the Nazi Party at a convention in Nurnberg on September 15, 1935. These measures were among the first of the racist Nazi laws that culminated in the Holocaust.

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American law Britannica

Details: conflict of laws. In conflict of laws: Rationale behind choice of jurisdiction. In the United States this is the function of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution, which limits the exercise of the jurisdiction of state courts to protect defendants against unreasonable burdens. The Fifth Amendment similarly

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Personal-liberty laws United States history Britannica

Details: Personal-liberty laws, in U.S. history, pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North. Contravening the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which did not provide for trial

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United States campaign-finance laws Britannica

Details: United States campaign-finance laws, in the United States, laws that regulate the amounts of money political candidates or parties may receive from individuals or organizations and the cumulative amounts that individuals or organizations can donate. Such laws also define who is eligible to make political contributions and what sorts of activities constitute in-kind contributions.

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Solon's laws Greek history Britannica

Details: Solon’s laws, constitutional and judicial reforms instituted by the Athenian statesman and poet Solon probably 20 years after he served as archon (annual chief ruler) in 594 bce. Responding to the early 6th-century Athenian conflict between the landed aristocracy and peasantry, Solon was called upon to mediate the inequities that denied

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racism Definition, History, Laws, & Facts Britannica

Details: Laws aimed at limiting the voting power of racial minorities were invalidated by the Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964) to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibited poll taxes, and by the federal Voting Rights Act (1965), which required jurisdictions with a history of voter suppression to obtain federal approval (“preclearance”) of any proposed

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Are There Laws on the High Seas

Details: With respect to crimes committed in these areas, the laws of the country owning the vessel or structure upon which the crime has been committed hold sway. This may seem pretty straightforward, but vessels in the sea are often on the move, which creates jurisdictional headaches for investigators and government officials.

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criminal law Definition, Types, Examples, & Facts

Details: Criminal law, the body of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected persons, and fixes penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders. Learn more about the principles and types of criminal law in this article.

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Crime law Britannica

Details: Crime, the intentional commission of an act usually deemed socially harmful or dangerous and specifically defined, prohibited, and punishable under criminal law. Most countries have enacted a criminal code in which all of the criminal law can be found, though English law —the source of many other criminal-law systems—remains uncodified.

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Porcian laws ancient Roman laws Britannica

Details: Other articles where Porcian laws is discussed: ancient Rome: Citizenship and politics in the middle republic: A series of Porcian laws were passed to protect citizens from summary execution or scourging, asserting the citizen’s right of appeal to the assembly (ius provocationis). A descendant of the Porcian clan later advertised these laws on coins as a victory for freedom.

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Military law Britannica

Details: Military law, the body of law concerned with the maintenance of discipline in the armed forces. Every state requires a code of laws and regulations for the raising, maintenance, and administration of its armed forces, all of which may be considered the field of military law. The term, however, is

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Law of war Britannica

Details: The laws of war have found it difficult to keep up with rapid changes wrought by the development of ever-newer weapons and more technologically advanced warfare, with their attendant damage to the natural environment. It therefore becomes important constantly to supplement (but not to abolish) earlier treaties.

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Philosophy of science

Details: Philosophy of science - Philosophy of science - Explanations, laws, and theories: The logical-empiricist project of contrasting the virtues of science with the defects of other human ventures was only partly carried out by attempting to understand the logic of scientific justification. In addition, empiricists hoped to analyze the forms of scientific knowledge.

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Salic Law Germanic law Britannica

Details: Salic Law, the code of the Salian Franks who conquered Gaul in the 5th century and the most important, although not the oldest, of all Teutonic laws (leges barbarorum). The code was issued late (c. 507–511) in the reign of Clovis, the founder of Merovingian power in western Europe. It was twice

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Natural resources law Britannica

Details: Natural resources law, complex body of national and local laws, having both statutory and common-law components, that regulate the use and protection of natural resources. Even when resources extend across national boundaries, or when resource exploitation (e.g., depleting a freshwater lake for

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Roman law Influence, Importance, Principles, & Facts

Details: Roman law, the law of ancient Rome. As a legal system, it has affected the development of law in most of Western civilization as well as in parts of the East. It forms the basis for the law codes of most countries of continental Europe and derivative systems elsewhere.

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Soviet law History & Facts Britannica

Details: Soviet law, also called socialist law, law developed in Russia after the communist seizure of power in 1917 and imposed throughout the Soviet Union in the 1920s. After World War II, the Soviet legal model also was imposed on Soviet-dominated regimes in eastern and central Europe.Later, ruling communist parties in China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam adopted variations of Soviet law.

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Philosophy of law Britannica

Details: Philosophy of law, also called jurisprudence, branch of philosophy that investigates the nature of law, especially in its relation to human values, attitudes, practices, and political communities.Traditionally, philosophy of law proceeds by articulating and defending propositions about law that are general and abstract—i.e., that are true not of a specific legal system at a particular time

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Sunset law statute Britannica

Details: Sunset laws were widely promoted in the United States in the 1970s as reform measures to eliminate bloated and unresponsive government bureaucracies. Some political theorists touted sunset laws as a way to diminish interest-group power over government programs and to promote more active legislative oversight.

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Entail law Britannica

Details: Entail, in feudal English law, an interest in land bound up inalienably in the grantee and then forever to his direct descendants. A basic condition of entail was that if the grantee died without direct descendants the land reverted to the grantor. The concept, feudal in origin, supported a landed

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French law Britannica

Details: French defamation laws historically have been more severe. An act of 1881, which inaugurated modern French defamation law, required conspicuous retraction of libelous material in newspapers and allowed truth as a defense only when publications concerned public figures. Modern German defamation is similar but generally… Read More; deportation

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Environmental law Britannica

Details: Environmental law, principles, policies, directives, and regulations enacted and enforced by local, national, or international entities to regulate human treatment of the nonhuman world. The vast field covers a broad range of topics in diverse legal settings, such as state bottle-return laws in the

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Jim Crow law History, Facts, & Examples Britannica

Details: Jim Crow law, any of the laws that enforced racial segregation in the U.S. South from the end of Reconstruction to the mid-20th century. The segregation principle was codified on local and state levels and most famously with the Supreme Court’s ‘separate but equal’ decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).

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Mersenne’s laws physics Britannica

Details: Other articles where Mersenne’s laws is discussed: sound: Mersenne’s laws: From equation (22) can be derived three “laws” detailing how the fundamental frequency of a stretched string depends on the length, tension, and mass per unit length of the string. Known as Mersenne’s laws, these can be …

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Marriage law Britannica

Details: Marriage law, the body of legal specifications and requirements and other laws that regulate the initiation, continuation, and validity of marriages. Marriage is a legally sanctioned union usually between one man and one woman. Beginning with the Netherlands in 2001, a number of countries as well

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Isaac Newton Biography, Facts, Discoveries, Laws

Details: Isaac Newton, English physicist and mathematician, who was the culminating figure of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. He laid the foundation for modern physical optics, formulated the law of universal gravitation, and discovered infinitesimal calculus.

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Extradition law Britannica

Details: Extradition, in international law, the process by which one state, upon the request of another, effects the return of a person for trial for a crime punishable by the laws of the requesting state and committed outside the state of refuge. Extraditable persons include those charged with a crime but

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Greek law ancient Greece Britannica

Details: Greek law, legal systems of the ancient Greeks, of which the best known is the law of Athens.Although there never was a system of institutions recognized and observed by the nation as a whole as its legal order, there were a number of basic approaches to legal problems, certain methods used in producing legal effects, and a legal terminology, all shared to varying degrees by the numerous

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logarithm Rules, Examples, & Formulas Britannica

Details: Logarithm, the exponent or power to which a base must be raised to yield a given number. Expressed mathematically, x is the logarithm of n to the base b if b x = n, in which case one writes x = log b n.For example, 2 3 = 8; therefore, 3 is the logarithm of 8 to base 2, or 3 = log 2 8. In the same fashion, since 10 2 = 100, then 2 = log 10 100. Logarithms of the latter sort (that is, logarithms

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Jim Crow Laws Timeline Britannica

Details: A timeline covering the origins and history of Jim Crow laws, which enforced racial segregation in the United States. After Reconstruction southern legislatures passed laws requiring segregation of whites and blacks on public transportation. These laws later extended to …

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Chinese law Britannica

Details: Chinese law, the body of laws in China and the institutions designed to administer them. The term encompasses both the legal history of China prior to the foundation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 and the law of that country today. According to conventional wisdom in the West, there was

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Statutory rape law Britannica

Details: Laws, though variable, define when an individual is capable of making sexual activity decisions. The laws about statutory rape are complex and diverse . Most address the age at which a minor can agree to sex (consent), the acceptable age difference for sexual relations between a minor and adult, and to what extent the adult is in a position of

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Petition law Britannica

Details: Petition, written instrument directed to some individual, official, legislative body, or court in order to redress a grievance or to request the granting of a favour. Petitions are also used to collect signatures to enable a candidate to get on a ballot or to put an issue before the electorate.

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Acerbo Law Italian history Britannica

Details: Other articles where Acerbo Law is discussed: fascism: Opposition to parliamentary democracy: …electoral reform, known as the Acerbo Law, that gave two-thirds of the seats in Parliament to the party that received the largest number of votes. Although Mussolini insisted that he wanted to save Parliament rather than undermine it, the Acerbo Law enabled the Fascists to take control of

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Jim Crow Laws Key Facts Britannica

Details: A list of key facts about the set of laws known as Jim Crow laws, which were an official effort to keep African Americans separate from whites throughout the United States for many years. The laws were in place from the late 1870s until the civil rights movement of the 20th century.

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Hindu law Britannica

Details: marriage laws. In family law: Marriage as a transfer of dependence. …traditional Chinese marriage, in the Hindu marriage based on the joint family, in rabbinical law, in Islamic law, and in Germanic and Celtic customary law. The Germanic traditions were imported into England, where they combined with Norman concepts to become the basis of the

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